Comparing objects of different types in Python 2

On the project I currently work on, we were recently (briefly) bitten by an interesting bug that initially slipped through the tests and code review. We had a custom database-mapped type that had two attributes defined, let’s call them value_low and value_high. As their names suggest, the value of the former should be lower than the value of the latter. The model type also defined a validator that would enforce this rule, and assure internal consistency of the model instances.

A simplified version of the type is shown below:

from sqlalchemy import Column, Integer
from sqlalchemy.ext.declarative import declarative_base
from sqlalchemy.orm import validates

Base = declarative_base()


class MyModel(Base):
  __tablename__ = 'my_models'

  id = Column(Integer, primary_key=True)
  value_low = Column(Integer)
  value_high = Column(Integer)

  @validates('value_low', 'value_high')
  def validate_thresholds(self, key, value):
    """Assure that relative ordering of both values remains consistent."""
    if key == 'value_low' and value >= self.value_high:
      raise ValueError('value_low must be strictly lower than value_high')
    elif key == 'value_high' and value <= self.value_low:
       raise ValueError('value_high must be strictly higher than value_low')

    return value

The model definition seems pretty sensible, and it works, too:

>>> instance = MyModel(value_low=2, value_high=10)
>>> instance.value_low, instance.value_high
(2, 10)

Except when you run it on another machine with the same Python version:

>>> instance = MyModel(value_low=2, value_high=10)
Traceback (most recent call last):
  ...
ValueError: value_low must be strictly lower than value_high

Uhm, what?

After a bit of research, the following behavior can be noticed, even on the machine where the code initially seemed to work just fine:

>>> instance = MyModel()
>>> instance.value_high = 10
>>> instance.value_low = 2
>>> instance.value_low, instance.value_high
(2, 10)

# now let's try to reverse the order of assignments
>>> instance = MyModel()
>>> instance.value_low = 2
# ValueError ...

What’s going on here? Why is the order of attribute value assignments important?

This, by the way, explains why the first example worked on one machine, but failed on another. The values passed to MyModel() as keyword arguments were applied in a different order1.

Debugging showed that if value_low is set first when value_high is still None, the following expression evaluates to True (key equals to value_low), resulting in a failed validation:

# MIND: value == 2
if key == 'value_low' and value >= self.value_high:
  raise ValueError(...)

On the other hand, if we first set value_high when value_low is None, the corresponding if statement condition evaluates to False and the error does not get raised. Stripping it down to the bare essentials gives us the following2:

>>> 2 >= None
True
>>> 10 <= None
False

If we further explore this, it gets even better:

>>> None < -1
True
>>> None < -float('inf')
True
>>> None < 'foobar'
True
>>> 'foobar' > -1
True
>>> 'foobar' > 42
True
>>> tuple >= (lambda x: x)
True
>>> type > Ellipsis
True

Oh… of course. It’s Python2 that we use on the project (doh).

You see, Python2 is perfectly happy to compare objects of different types, even when that does not make much sense. Peeking into the CPython source code reveals that None is smaller than anything:

...
/* None is smaller than anything */
if (v == Py_None)
    return -1;
if (w == Py_None)
    return 1;

Different types are ordered by name, with number types being smaller than other types3.

Now that we know this, the bug from the beginning makes perfect sense. It was just a coincidence that high_value could be set on an instance, because the validator’s check for an error (value <= self.value_low) would never return True when self.value_low is None, because the latter is smaller than everything.

In the end the issue was, fortunately, quickly discovered, and fixing it was straightforward. We just needed to add an extra check:

if (
    key == 'value_low' and
    self.value_high is not None and  # <-- THIS
    value >= self.value_high):
    ...
# and the same for the other if...

And the application worked correctly and happily ever after…


  1. That’s probably because when creating a new instance of the model, SQLAlchemy loops over the kwargs dict somewhere down the rabbit hole, but the order of the dictionary keys is arbitrary. 
  2. Python2 only. In Python3 we would get TypeError: unorderable types
  3. Provided that types do not define their own custom rich comparison methods, of course. 

Hello, World!

Hey, look, I now have my own technical blog, too! It’s technical, because its posts (will) contain snippets of program code like the one below:

from __future__ import print_function

print('Hello, World!')

See?

The code above has been carefully crafted to run both under Python 21 and Python 3.

Expect more of this in the future, but for now I will just cut this post short, because hello world programs posts should be short and simple, right?


  1. Well, 2.6+ at least when print_function was added to the __future__ module (yeah, I know, it would also work without that import in this particular case…).